Anchor University Journal of Science and Technology <p><em>A publication of the Faculty of Science and Science Education, Anchor University Lagos</em></p> <p><em><strong> Editor-in-Chief: Prof. J.O. Fatokun</strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>Managing Editor: Dr. J.O. Babayemi</strong></em></p> en-US (Prof. Fatokun J.O.) (Dr. Babayemi, J.O.) Thu, 26 Aug 2021 14:04:44 +0000 OJS 60 Engendering Cohesion among Construction Project Team Members (CPTMs): Factors to Consider <p>Despite the importance of cohesion in all human endeavours and especially among CPTMs, the specific factors that will engender cohesion among CPTM have rarely been researched. This study seeks to identify factors that engender cohesion among construction project team members (CPTMs) to improve on construction project performance and contribute to the construction performance literature. The study adopted an online survey by the use of a questionnaire to elicit information from construction professionals involved in construction projects in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The importance of the factors identified in the study was analysed using the Relative Importance Index (RII). Likewise, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to group the 28 identified factors into parsimonious groups for decision-making. The results of the RII show that for the cohesion of CPTMs in Nigeria, the top-ranking factors are: commitment to the project objectives by team-members, team members; competence; project leadership; clarity of project goal; and objectives and adherence to professional ethics by team members with RII values of 0.91, 0.91, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.90, respectively. The conducted EFA reduced the 28 factors into six components, namely: shared identity', 'roles and responsibility of team members', 'social entity', 'respect and trust', 'team chemistry' and 'team size'. This study empirically identified and classified factors that engender cohesion among CPTMs which will be of significance to the construction industry practitioners and help improve construction project performance. The study is crucial as it collates analyses and compares the factors that engender cohesion among CPTMs from professionals practicing in four different construction professional firms, thereby providing a more reliable conjecture of opinions.The findings will assist in significantly improving the performance of construction projects globally if the identified factors are carefully considered.</p> OE Akinsiku , OS Oyediran, KT Odusami Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Rice Farmers’ and Extension Agents’ Perceptions on the Use of Radio in Dissemination of Agricultural Information in Zamfara State, Nigeria <p>The absence of a functional agricultural information delivery system is a major constraint in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. Radio is identified by experts to be the most appropriate for rural emancipation programs, because it beats distances, and thus has immediate effect. This study assessed the perceptions of rice farmers and extension agents on the use of radio in the dissemination of agricultural information in Zamfara state. The research uses a structured questionnaire for data collection. Multi-stage, simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to arrive at a sample size of 350 farm respondents. Descriptive statistics and a five-point Likert scale were used. Also, the hypothesis was tested using a Spearman’s correlation co-efficient. The major perception of rice farmers and extension agents was that radio serves as a panacea in closing the information gap in the study area with a mean of 2.80 and 2.94 respectively. The Correlation Coefficient (r) of 0.97. indicated that, there is a significant Correlation between rice farmers and that of extension agents’ perceptions on the use of radio in the dissemination of agricultural information in the study area. The research findings were able to identify some constraints such as non-possession of A radio set by rice farmers and their limited time to listen to most of the radio programmes. Therefore, there is the need to integrate extension service with agricultural radio programmes. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M Yahaya, U Sa’adu, K Yahaya, R Kabiru Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Temporal dynamics in biomass and diversity of phytomacrofauna community in a two-arm lagoon, Southwest, Nigeria <p>Temporal variability in time and space is known to shape the distribution of organisms, their interactions and adaptations . In Nigeria, Southwest region in particular, studies investigating patterns in phytomacrofauna attributes are scarce. This study reports the temporal patterns in biomass, density and diversity of phytomacrofauna community in a two-arm lagoon, Southwest, Nigeria. Monthly samples collected for seven consecutive times at eight sampling locations were used for this investigation. Of all the physico-chemical variables investigated only salinity was significantly different (ANOVA, <em>F</em> = 5.33, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) among sampling months. There was a significant difference in the biomass (ANOVA, <em>F</em> = 2.983, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) recorded for the sampling months. Monthly biomass varied between 552 and 2976 gm<sup>-2</sup>, with November and January recording the lowest and highest values respectively. Of the three phytomacrofauna phyla (Mollusca, Arthropoda, Annelida) collected, mollusca recorded the highest (3548 gm<sup>-2</sup>) biomass during the study period. Monthly density varied between 960 and 5810 ind/m<sup>2</sup> with May and February recording the lowest and highest values respectively. There was no significant difference in the monthly density (ANOVA, <em>F</em> = 0.485, <em>p</em> &gt; 0.05) of phytomacrofauna. The phylum arthropoda recorded the highest (15000 ind/m<sup>2</sup>) density among the three phyla collected. Temporal variation in density of phytomacrofauna was similar to the pattern displayed by biomass. The month of May supported the highest phytomacrofauna diversity and species richness. Overall pattern displayed in the results suggests an overwhelming influence of&nbsp;&nbsp; temporal changes in environmental conditions&nbsp; on the phytomacrofauna variables. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> RE Uwadiae, M Akinsanya, D Bello Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activity of Trichilia megalantha Harms and Trichilia welwitschii CDC Extracts and Fractions on Anopheles gambiae Larvae <p>Lately, there is an increasing shift towards the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural vector control of plant origin as agent for disease vector control. To determine the toxicity of extracts and fractions of <em>T. megalantha</em> and <em>T. welwitschii</em> on <em>Anopheles gambiae</em> larvae. The larvicidal activity of methanol extracts of leaf, stem bark and root bark of <em>Trichilia megalantha </em>and <em>Trichilia welwitschii </em>(Meliaceae) and fractions of stem bark of <em>T. megalantha</em> and root of <em>T. welwitschii</em> were evaluated on early 4<sup>th</sup> instar <em>Anopheles gambiae </em>larvae. Larvae were exposed to various concentration of plant extracts and fractions. Dead larvae were counted after 24 h of exposure. The most active extracts of both plants were partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol and subjected to the same assay.&nbsp; Ethanol (5%) was included as a negative control. The experiments were done in triplicate. Results were compared to those of larvae exposed to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (LC<sub>50</sub> =1000.09 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup>), the reference insecticide.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All tested extracts and fractions showed larvae mortality. Of the six crude extracts screened, <em>T. megalantha </em>stem bark showed the highest activity with LC<sub>50</sub> of 15.6 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup> while the leaf (LC<sub>50</sub> =496.1 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup>) showed the least activity. The root of <em>T. welwitschii</em> was more toxic to the larvae (LC<sub>50</sub> =65.0 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup>) while the leaf (LC<sub>50</sub> =232.0 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup>) showed the least larvae toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results showed that the extracts and fractions of <em>T. megalantha </em>and <em>T. welwitschii </em>were significantly toxic to <em>Anopheles gambiae</em> larvae.&nbsp; The promising activity demonstrated by the two plants in mosquito vector control could contribute significantly to malaria control.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> DA Fadare, EO Ajaiyeoba Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cookies-making potentials of sorghum-wheat flour blends <p>Composite flours provide possibilities in enhancing the nutritional and quality characterises of baked foods.&nbsp;In this study, the proximate, functional and pasting characteristics of sorghum-wheat composite flours consisting of 20 % and 40 % sorghum flour substitution levels were investigated. The sorghum-wheat composite flours were utilised in the production of cookies and their proximate and sensory acceptability were examined. It was revealed that an increase in sorghum flour levels in the composite flours increased ash, crude fibre, carbohydrates (2.62% and 3.95%) and dry-matter (8%) while decreasing protein and fat compositions. Also, increase in bulk density (5% and 9%), water absorption (24% and 31%), swelling power, solubility, peak viscosity (52% and 37%), breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity of the composite flour increased with increase in sorghum flour levels. Cookies produced from the composite flours showed increased protein contents. Consumers preferred the colour, appearance and taste of cookies produced from composite flour containing 40% sorghum flour than that of wheat flour cookie. This study has demonstrated the baking functionality and nutritional qualities of sorghum-wheat composite flour. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> TO Olurin, OAB Ogunmoyela, OE Dudu, TA Adubi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000